Essex County Massachusetts Freedom Case Participants 1760 - 1783
Plaintiffs | Defendants | Plaintiff Attorneys | Appeal Attorneys for Originial Plaintiff | Attorneys for Defendants | Appeal Attorneys for Original Defendants | Attorneys - Unspecified | ECCP Judges | SCJ Chief Justices | SCJ Associate Justices | Town Lists
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- John Beverly Youngest son, enlisted in the 1760 War and lost both feet due to frostbite. Frequent petitioner for relief from town and state. Andover Selectmen in 1775 advertised against trusting him.
- Booso Negro man. Labourer.
- Moody Bridges
- Bristol Negro Laborer
- Casar Leather Dresser. Denied marriage to Tamar of Danvers, April 15, 1769.
- Philemon Chandler Father was a blacksmith.
- Samuel Chickering Currier. Owner of Booso.
- Captain John Farnum
- Joshua Felt
- John Foster Not clear which John Foster in Andover this is. Testimony is that owned a house but refused to sell to Casar and James Turner in 1768.
- Peter Frye Esq. Peter Frye, appointed [to the ECCP] January 15, 1772, was born in Andover in 1723 and graduated at Harvard in 17 44. He removed to Salem and taught school, and was also Colonel in the Militia and Register of Probate for Essex County from September 29, 1773, to the Revolution. He remained on the bench until the Revolution and being a Loyalist went to England where he died in 1820. Davis, History of Judiciary in Massachusetts
- Charles Furbush Yeoman Accused of currency forgery in 1771 along with his "Negro servant" Cesar (see Suffolk Files #132111 and #132112). Captain in Colonel Bridge's Regiment at Bunker Hill, 1775. Three sons died of illness in 1788. Acquired Pomp at 16 years old. Mistreated him and in 1795, Pomp murdered him. Pomp was publicly executed in Ipswich, the last public execution in Massachusetts.
- Tamar Graves Marriage to Casar denied by Taylor when both Casar and Tamer were Danvers residents April 15 1769. Identified as Indian woman. SCJ June Courrt refused testimony as Casar's wife. Lived as man and wife with Casar using last name of Dole in Andover and two children until her death at 76 years old in 1816.
- Benjamin Guilford
- Jonathan Holt Jr. Probably Jonathan Jr. born in Andover in 1728, died 1792. Yeoman.
- Nancy Singlewoman. Listed in Inventory as "A Negro Girl named Nancy" valued at 40 pounds. Inventory dated June 29, 1763 from Probate Record #20506 Captain James Parker of Andover.
- John Nichols
- Timothy Osgood Jr.
- John Osgood Esq.
- Joseph Osgood Physician.
- Peter Osgood Jr. Merchant
- Thomas Osgood Yeoman. Owner of Prince.
- Dinah Parker Widow of Capt. James Parker who died in 1763 leaving "Negro girl named Nancy" valued at 40pounds.
- James Parker Jr. Husbandman
- Samuel Phillips Esq.
- Salem Poor Purchased freedom from John Poor, Jr. July 1769 (recorded February 1772.) Married Dinah Parker, August 1771 who filed suit against her owner in ECCP September 1771. Highly respected Revolutionary war soldier.
- Prince Negro man. Labourer.
- Rose Negro woman. Singlewoman & Spinster.
- Abiel Stevens
- Timon Negro man Labourer
- James Turner According to John Foster's testimony, in 1768, John Turner was buying a house with Casar or assisting Casar with buying a house.
- Mr. John Willson
- Josiah Batchelder Jr. Father-in-law of Caleb Dodge
- Caleb Dodge
- Juno Mother was a "North Carolina Indian" purchased in Portsmouth New Hampshire by Captain Henry Herrick of Beverly. Later willed to Herrick's daughter Mary Larcom wife of David Larcom. Married Jethro Thistle in 1751 and had eleven children. After Larcom's death, returned to Larcom's household but "claimed her freedom" for herself and her children.
- David Larcom Farmer, merchant, land speculator. Acquired Juno through marriage with Mary Larcom.
- Theophilus Parsons THEOPHILUS PARSONS (1750-1813). Harvard 1769. Studied law with Theophilus Bradbury and Edmund Trowbridge, qq.v. Admitted attorney, Cumberland Inferior Court, July 1774; attorney, SCJ, June 1776; barrister, ca. 1784. Practiced in Essex Co. Leading lawyer of the post-Revolutionary generation, having many later distinguished students, including JQA. Interested in science as well, producing essays on astronomy and geometry. Author of the Essex Result, report of the Essex Convention in opposition to the proposed Massachusetts Constitution of 1778. A leader in the Essex Junto at the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779. Delegate to the Massachusetts Ratification Convention, 178 8. Elected to the House, 1779, 1787-1791, 1805. Appointed Chief Justice of Massachusetts, 1806, serving until his death. DAB.
- Thomas Chadwick Trader. Former owner of Timon.
- Ezekiel Cooper Attended ECCP Sept 1771 and SCJ June 1772 at Casar vs Taylor
- Hannah Cooper Summonsed to ECCP Sept 1771 for Casar vs Taylor, no record of attendance. Wife of Ezekiel Cooper
- Samuel Holton Physician Physcian, Elected Danvers Rep. to General Court 1768. ECCP Judge 1776 - 1808. Justice General Sessions of the Peace 35 years. JP for 15 years. Seved in Congress two years. Citation: "History of the town of Danvers, from its early settlement to the year 1848." Hanson, John Wesley, 1848.
- David Preston Nor of legal age in 1771/2; only "David Preston" found in surrounding area in 1771/2.
- Asa Putnam Attended SCJ Nov and SCJ June in Casar vs Taylor.
- Amos Smith Could be either Amos Smith (1724 - 1798), blacksmith, living in Danvers in 1771 or his son born 1748 and also living in Danvers in 1771.
- Bartholomew Smith Son of Walter Smith, nephew or cousin of Amos Smith. Cooper.
- Walter Smith Born in Salem, father of Bartholomew Smith (1751-) both of Danvers. Cooper.
- Rowland Thomas
- Anna Whittaker Likely to have been Hannah Knap, daughter of Nathaniel and Sarah Knap of Danvers, b. Sept 27, 1737. Married Abraham Whitteker, Danvers, April 28, 1762.
- Richard Whitteridge Summonsed and reimbursed for attendance at ECCP September 1771 for Casar vs Taylor. Housewright born in Beverly. Youngest child Ruth born September 22 1771. Wife Lydia died November 9, 1771. Remarried January 1774 and died falling from steeple of meetinghouse Nov. 1, 1774. Left estate valued at 358 pounds including 12 acres of woodland in Andover.
- Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant Esq. NATHANIEL PEASLEE SARGEANT (1731-1791). Harvard 1750,. Admitted attorney, SCJ, Oct. 1764; barrister, June 1767. Practiced in Haverhill. Appointed Justice of the Peace, 1767. Delegate to Second Provincial Congress, 177 5. Represented Haverhill in the House, 1776. Declined appointment to the Superior Court, Oct. 1775, but accepted appointment, Sept. 1776. Delegate to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779. Appointed Chief Justice, 1 790. 12 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 574-580.
- Mark Howe
- Samuel Porter Esq.
- Jenny Slew
- Violet Cudjo Mother of Edward Lewis. Daughter of Lydia Dyer Robbins, "free Negro" and Cudjo. Granddaughter of Anthony and Amaritta, "free Negroes".
- John Whipple Jr
- John Bryant Owned about 175 acres in Lynn and Reading at death in 1796.
- Moses Hart Gentleman Born 2-15-1727/8. Served in army, promoted to Captain 1758-1762. Married Lydia Fuller (1740-1766), on 12-5-1762. Daughter Lydia b. 10-7-1763. Wife died 1766. Father died 1774. Served as Captain in Siege of Boston but court-martialed in Sept. 1775 for stealing provisions and abusing his men.
- Ephraim Shelden
- Mr. William Newman A William Newmen married Hepzibah Morse in 1761. A William Newman also had two children with Mary in 1767 and 1769.
- John Flint Owner of Primus who was summonsed for ECCP and SCJ Nov. 1771.
- Timothy Fuller Gentleman Slave owner, reputedly of 40 slaves. Bought Casar as 12 year old from "Guinea", speaking no English. Bound out to Taylor and later sold to Hircom.
- Josiah Hutchinson Husbandman Born in Salem, married to Sarah Dean of Salem, died 1782 intestate in Middleton.
- Primus Enslaved in Middleton by John Flint. John Flint owned grist and sawmills on Ipswich River between (now) North Reading and (now) Peabody. Primus was married to Pegg, also owned by Flint, on March 24, 1749. Primus was bequeathed in Flint's will dated 1773 to Jeremiah Flint. Pegg was bequeathed in will to Flint's wife Huldah and three other enslaved people, Jack, Kate and Cloe, were bequeathed in will to Flint children. Primus gave sworn testimony in 1771 on discussion with Taylor on Taylor's arrangement with Casar.
- Daniel Hale Gentleman
- Cloe Hale Negro woman. Singlewoman.
- Nathaniel Hale Housejoiner.
- Jude Molatto Singlewoman "free woman born"
- John Knight
- Benjamin Woodbridge
- Joseph Woodbridge Boatbuilder
- Adventurer Negro man. Laborer.
- Daniel Farnham Esq. DANIEL FARNHAM ( 1719-1776). Harvard 173 9. Studied law with Edmund Trowbridge, q.v. Admitted attorney, SCJ, Nov. 1745; barrister, Aug. 1762. Practiced in Newburyport. Appointed Attorney General for York Co., 1744; Justice of the Peace, Essex Co., 1752. Loyalist in sympathy, but did not go into exile. 10 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 364-366.
- Charles Freeman
- Richard Greenleaf
- Casar Hendrick "Molatto man." Labourer. Baptised in First Presbyterian Church Newburyport. Had two children with Susannah - Elizabeth b. May 1, 1775 and Josiah b. July 2, 1777 d. May 1801, both listed under family name not under "Negroes".
- Seir Kimball
- Rufus King Esq. 1755-1827 Harvard 1777 Studied law in Newburyport under Theophilus Parsons. Admitted to the bar 1780. 1783: Elected to be Newburyport's representative at General Court. 1784: Elected to Continental Congress. Sponsored bill to not allow slavery in new territories. 1788 Moved to New York 1789 Elected to US Senate. 1796-1803; 1825-1826 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain. Federalist; ran unsuccessfully for vice president in 1804 and 1808.
- Reverend John Lowell Newburyport minister; father of John Lowell, attorney.
- John Lowell Esq. JOHN LOWELL ( 1743-1802). Harvard 1760. Studied law with Oxenbridge Thacher, q. v. Admitted attorney, SCJ, May 1 7 6 5; barrister, June 1767. Practiced in Newburyport until 1777, thereafter in Boston. Appointed Justice of the Peace, 1769. Addresser of Hutchinson, 1774, recanting several months later. Represented Newburyport in the House, 1776; Boston, 1778, 1780. Delegate to Massachusetts Constitutional Convention, 1779-1780. Served in Continental Congress, 1782-1783. Appointed to federal Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture, 1782. Judge, United States District Court, Massachusetts, 1789. Appointed Chief Judge of the First Circuit in Feb. 1801 by JA - one of the "midnight judges." DAB; 1 Adams Family Correspondence 405-406. His papers are in MHi.
- Pomp Somerset
- Richard Vanderhoaf Merchant.
- James Bolt Owns shop in Salem. Buys and sells skins.
- Nathan Brown Gentleman Born in Newbury, 1713, still owned house and land in Newburyport at death in Salem in 1778.
- William Browne Esq WILLIAM BROWNE (1737-1802). Harvard 1755. Studied law with Edmund Trowbridge, q.v., but never practiced. Appointed Justice of the Peace and of the Quorum, 1761. Briefly Collector of the Port of Salem, 1764, but dismissed, apparently in scandal over counterfeit clearances. Represented Salem in the House, 1762-1768. One of the seventeen "Rescinders" who voted to withdraw resolutions protesting the Townshend Acts, 1768. Judge, Essex Inferior Court, 1770-1774. Addresser of Gage, 1774. Appointed Judge of the Superior Court and a Mandamus Councilor, 1774. Took refuge in Boston. In 1776 sailed for England. Proscribed, 1778. Governor of Bermuda, 178 1-178 8. 13 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 551-560.
- John Cushing Esq.
- Benjamin Lynde Jr., Esq.
- Andrew Oliver Jun. Esq. Harvard 1749. Son of Lt. Gov. Andrew Fitch (1706 - 1774) Nephew of Chief Justice Peter Oliver. Married (1752) Mary Lynde, daughter of Judge Benjamin Lynde. Moved to Salem @ 1760. Appointed to ECCP Nov. 19, 1761. "Largely uninterested in politics or his legal career." Scientist. 1763 Elected as Salem Rep. to General Court. 1764 published account of illness among Native Americans in Martha's Vineyard. 1772 published "An Essay on Comets in Two Parts."1773 elected to American Philosophical Society. 1774 Declined appointment to Mandamus Council. 1775 Recanted Address to Hutchinson. 1780 elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Suffered from severe gout for 16 years before death in 1799.
- William Pynchon Esq. WILLIAM PYNCHON (1723-1789). Harvard 1743. Studied law with Mitchell Sewall, Essex Co. Clerk of Courts and Register of Deeds. Admitted attorney, SCJ, June 1757; barrister, Aug. 1762. Practiced in Essex Co. Had many students, including William Wetmore, q.v., later his son-in-law. Appointed Justice of the Peace, 1761. Addresser of Hutchinson, 1774, but recanted. Addresser of Gage, 1774. Although remaining firmly loyalist in sympathy, he braved out the Revolution in Salem, continuing to practice law in partnership with Wetmore, and finally being appointed a Justice of the Peace and of the Quorum in 1786.
- Honorable Nathaniel Ropes Esq. NATHANIEL ROPES (1726-1774). Harvard 1745. Had no formal legal training. Represented Salem in the House, 1760-1761. Councilor, 1762-1769, supporting policies of Hutchinson. Appointed Justice of the Peace and of the Quorum, 1761. Judge, Essex Inferior Court, 1761-1772. Essex Co. Judge of Probate, 1766-1772. Justice, Superior Court, [Januiary 15] 1772-1774. His death was hastened by the agitation over the royal salary grant, which he renounced on his deathbed. 11 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 572-574.
- Honorable Caleb Cushing Esq. Magistrate in Salisbury for fifty years. Member of Governor's Council 1771 - 1774. Quartermaster in Essex Regiment. Delegate in 1778 to constitutional convention, Served in provincial congress.
- Edmund Trowbridge Esq. EDMUND TROWBRIDGE (1709-1793). Harvard 1728. Used the name "Goffe" until well into middle life, after his uncle and guardian, Col. Edmund Goffe. Admitted attorney, SCJ, July 1732; barrister, Aug. 1762. Practiced primarily in Middlesex Co. Considered the most scholarly lawyer and judge of the pre-Revolutionary period. Many of his students went on to great success at the bar. Appointed Justice of the Peace and of the Quorum, 1739. Attorney General, 1749-1767. Represented Cambridge in the House, 1750-1752, 1755, 1763. Member of the Council, 1764-1766, where he supported Crown policies. Justice of Superior Court, 1767-1775, bringing to the bench legal knowledge which many of his fellow judges lacked. Pleadings and opinions in the field of real property reprinted and cited by Massachusetts lawyers into the 19th century. Renounced the royal salary grant, 1774, and thereafter remained a neutral, withdrawing from public life to devote himself to legal research and study. 8 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 507-520; DAB.
- Stephen Buxton Yeoman On 1771 Voting Rolls for Reading, MA.
- Ezra Damon Enrolled as voter in Second Parish, Reading in 1771. Left two farms worth $3500.
- Edward Hircom Gentleman
- Mr. James Otis Jr. Lawyer. Wrote on natural rights for all, 'white or black.' Died while being cared for in Andover.
- Martha Rolf Lived in Reading. Married to Daniel Rolf. Eight children between 1741 - 1757.
- Daniel Rolf Married to Martha Rolf. Eight children between 1741 and 1757. Private in 1758 Canadian expedition in the Middleton Company under Capt. Andrew Fuller, Col. Jonathan Bagley's Regiment. Land records show that he and Martha sold 1 acre of property to Samuel Taylor in 1768.
- Timothy Russell
- Margaret Russell Wife of Timothy Russell. Summonsed to SCJ Nov. No Record of attendance.
- Abraham Shelden 1771 Voter in South Parish, Reading.
- Mr. Samuel Taylor
- Lydia Dyer Robbins Mother of Violet Cudjo, Grandmother of Edward Lewis
- Jeremiah Gridley JEREMIAH GRIDLEY (1702-1767). Harvard 1725. Admitted attorney, SCJ, Feb. 1732; barrister, Aug. 1762. (Sometimes called Jeremy.) The leading lawyer of his time. Many of the outstanding lawyers of the next generation studied under him, including William Cushing, James Otis, Benjamin Prat, and Oxenbridge Thacher, qq.v. Others, notably JA, were deeply influenced by his knowledge of the law. Founder of the "sodality," a legal discussion group in which JA participated, 1765. Broadly interested in literary matters as well, founding the Weekly Rehearsal (1731) and (with others) the American Magazine (1743). Appointed Justice of the Peace and of tl1e Quorum, 1746. Represented Brookline in the House frequently, 1755-1767. Appointed Attorney General, 1767. Represented the Crown in the argument on writs of assistance in 1761 (No. 44), but appeared with JA before the Council in 1765 to argue on behalf of the merchants of Boston that the courts be opened during the Stamp Act crisis. 7 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 5 18-53 o .
- Honorable Thomas Hutchinson Esq. THOMAS HUTCHINSON (1711-1780). Harvard 1727. Had no formal legal training. The most important figure on the loyalist side in pre-Revolutionary Massachusetts. Appointed Justice of the Peace, 1740. Served in the House, 1739-1749, and on the Council, 1749-1766. Expert on provincial currency and credit. Lieutenant Governor, 1758-1771, serving as acting Governor from 1769 until his appointment as Governor in 177 1. Chief Justice, 1760-1771 (did not sit after 1769). Also served as judge of the uffolk Inferior Court, 1752-1758, and as Suffolk County Judge of Probate, 1752-1769. As judge and Governor, involved in the major political events of the period, including the arguments on writs of assistance (No. 44), the Stamp Act crisis, the Boston Massacre (Nos. 63, 64), the burning of the Gaspee, and the Boston Tea Party. Called to England in r 774 and relieved as Governor; never returned to Massachu- etts. Author of History of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay, a thoughtful and scholarly work, of principal value for its account of his own administration (first published in 3 vols., 1764-1828; ed. Lawrence ,haw Mayo, Cambridge, Mass., 1936, 3 vols.). 8 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 149-215.
- Peter Oliver Esq. PETER OLIVER ( 1713-179 1). Harvard 1730. Had no formal legal training. Early Plymouth Co. industrialist, with poetic talent. Leading loyalist. Related to the Hutchinsons by marriage. Appointed Justice of the Peace, 1744 Judge, Plymouth Inferior Court, 1747-1756. Justice, Superior Court, 1756-1772; Chief Justice, 1772-1775. Represented Middleboro in the House, 1749, 1751, and sat on the Council, 1759-1766, upholding the crown position. Impeached as Chief Justice by the House, 1774 for refusmg to reject the royal salary grant. Jurors refused to serve under him thereafter. Appointed a Mandamus Councilor, 1774, and served on that body, taking refuge in Boston. Sailed to Halifax, 1776, and then to London. Proscribed, 1778. In retirement wrote Origin and Progress of the Anumcan Rebellion, a lengthy and very partisan account of the political events which he had witnessed (ed. Douglass Adair and John A. Schutz an Marino, Calif., 1963). 8 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 737-763:
- Mr. Oxenbridge Thacher Lawyer.
- James Putnam Esq. JAMES PUTNAM (1726-1789). Harvard 1746. Studied law with Edmund Trowbridge, q.v. Admitted attorney, SCJ, Sept. 1749; barrister, Aug. 1762. Practiced in Worcester. JA studied law in his office, 1756-1758. Appointed Justice of the Peace and of the Quorum, I 762. Addresser of Hutchinson, 1774, and Gage, 1775. Took refuge in Boston, 1774, and appointed Attorney General, 1775. Sailed for Halifax, 1776, then to New York, where he held a military post. Proscribed, 1778. Lived in England, 1779-1784. Then moved to New Brunswick as Judge of the Supreme Court and member of the Council. I 2 Sibley-Shipton, Harvard Graduates 57-66.